Pain management is a key element in the multidisciplinary care of patients with all forms of TOS, including evaluation, specific diagnostic studies, and treatment in patients with upper extremity pain associated with neurogenic TOS; testing and treatment for coexisting conditions that may complicate TOS, such as complex regional pain syndrome; performance of anesthetic injections and blocks for chronic pain syndromes; and assistance with postoperative pain management in selected patients that have undergone surgical treatment. To facilitate these aspects of multidisciplinary care, our TOS Center is particularly associated with Dr. Michael Bottros in the Washington University School of Medicine Pain Management Center at Barnes-Jewish Hospital.